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Brain Stroke

Brain Stroke

A stroke, also known as a brain attack, occurs when brain cells die suddenly due to lack of oxygen caused by either an obstruction in blood flow or the rupture of an artery that supplies blood to the brain. The patient may experience sudden loss of speech, memory problems, or paralysis on one side of the body. Stroke is the second most common cause of death and the fourth leading cause of disability worldwide, with approximately 20 million people affected each year, 5 million of whom do not survive. In India, it is a major cause of death and disability among the young population.

Brain Stroke Causes

There are two main types of stroke: ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes. Ischemic strokes are more common and are caused by narrowed arteries due to fatty deposits or plaques. Thrombotic strokes happen when a blood clot forms in an artery that carries blood to the brain, while embolic strokes occur when a clot formed elsewhere travels to the brain and blocks a narrow artery. Hemorrhagic strokes result from bleeding caused by a ruptured blood vessel in the brain, and can be either intracerebral or subarachnoid. A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a temporary blockage of blood flow to the brain, usually due to clots that resolve on their own within a few minutes. TIAs require immediate treatment because they can lead to major strokes in about one-third of people who experience them.

Types of Brain Stroke

Ischemic Stroke occurs when a blood clot blocks blood flow to the brain, accounting for 80% of all strokes. Embolus can also cause it when a free-floating clot is carried to the brain through the bloodstream.

Haemorrhagic Stroke occurs when a blood vessel ruptures on the brain's surface, causing subarachnoid haemorrhage, or when a defective artery bursts in the brain and fills the surrounding tissue with blood, causing cerebral haemorrhage. 20% of stroke cases are haemorrhagic.

Both types of stroke can cause weakness on one or both sides of the body, difficulty speaking, incontinence, loss of speech or thinking, inability to walk, or bedriddenness. Taking early action can help minimize brain damage and potential complications.

Brain Stroke Symptoms

A stroke, or cerebral vascular accident, can cause brain cell death and lead to disability, paralysis, coma, or death. Recognizing symptoms early is important to receive prompt medical attention. The acronym FAST can help identify symptoms: facial drooping or numbness, arm weakness, slurred speech, and time to call emergency services. Other symptoms include confusion, loss of consciousness, difficulty with coordination or balance, paralysis or weakness on one side of the body, sudden headaches, vision changes, and trouble swallowing. If someone exhibits any of these symptoms, it is crucial to seek emergency medical assistance immediately.

Expertise in Brain Stroke

The Amar jain hospital of Neurosciences is a top center for stroke care in India, with advanced equipment and experienced doctors available around the clock through a stroke helpline. They offer specialized tertiary care for neurological diseases, with a team of skilled neurologists, neurosurgeons, and critical care experts supported by state-of-the-art facilities including a dedicated Neuro ICU, high-end operation theaters, and Bi-plane cath labs. The team follows internationally accepted protocols and has a robust audit system for continual improvement. The Bi-plane cath labs provide high-resolution 3D images of complex blood vessels, allowing for safer and more effective treatment with reduced radiation exposure, including for pediatric patients. CT scans can also be obtained during procedures without moving the patient to another department, saving crucial time in neuro-intervention.

Approach Towards Treatment for Brain Stroke

Acting quickly is crucial in stroke treatment. Ischemic stroke is most effectively treated within 6 hours of onset, as administering Inj r-tPA within 4.5 hours can more effectively dissolve the clot and lead to better outcomes. In select cases, mechanical thrombectomy can be performed within 6 hours of onset, and in a few patients up to 24 hours.

Brain Stroke Treatment

At Amar Jain Hospital, we offer stroke treatment options including IV thrombolysis, mechanical thrombectomy, decompressive craniectomy, and stroke rehabilitation. Our rehabilitation program includes various therapies such as physiotherapy, occupational therapy, dysphagia therapy, speech therapy, cognitive therapy, and vocational counseling. We have advanced stroke rehabilitation modalities like functional electrical stimulation, biofeedback, and VitalStim therapy for dysphagia. Our staff specializes in helping stroke patients regain their independence.

We have advanced technologies such as biplane cath labs, intraoperative CT, neuro navigation system, intraoperative neuro monitoring system, stereotaxy, EEG, microscopic surgery, and sleep labs.

The patient's stroke treatment depends on the type of stroke they had.

Ischemic Stroke Treatment

At Amar Jain Hospital, the primary objective of treating Ischemic Stroke is to restore blood flow to the brain. This can be achieved by administering blood clot-busting drugs like aspirin, heparin or tissue plasminogen activators within three hours of the stroke. In some cases, surgical procedures may be performed to open up or widen arteries, such as carotid endarterectomy, which involves removing plaque and widening the carotid artery, or angioplasty, which uses a balloon to widen the artery and a stent to hold it open.

Haemorrhagic Stroke Treatment

Treatment for Hemorrhagic Stroke differs from that of Ischemic Stroke. Our team at Amar Jain Hospital uses surgical methods to treat Hemorrhagic Stroke, such as Aneurysm Clipping, which involves placing a small clamp at the base of the aneurysm to isolate it from the attached artery's circulation and prevent it from bursting or re-bleeding. Aneurysm Embolization or coiling is another method in which a tiny coil is inserted into the aneurysm using a catheter to clot and seal it off from arteries. Another surgical procedure is Arteriovenous Malformation (AVM) Removal, which involves the removal of usually smaller AVMs or AMVs in a more accessible portion of the brain to eliminate the risk of rupture.