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Hematology Oncology

Hematology Oncology

Blood cancer, as the name implies, is a type of cancer that affects the production and function of blood cells in the body. The cancer begins in the bone marrow, which is the source of blood cell production. Blood stem cells in the bone marrow develop into three types of blood cells: red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. In cases of blood cancer, the normal blood production process is interrupted by the growth of abnormal blood cells. There are various types of blood cancer, including Leukemia, Lymphoma, and Myeloma.

Types of Blood Cancer:

Leukemia causes rapid production of abnormal blood cells that interfere with the production of red and white blood cells and platelets. Lymphoma affects the lymphatic system by causing abnormal growth of lymphocytes, while myeloma affects plasma cells responsible for producing antibodies, thus weakening the immune system.

Signs and Symptoms

Common symptoms of blood cancer include weakness, fatigue, shortness of breath, excessive or easy bruising, bleeding gums, recurrent infections or fever, bone fractures with minimal strain, night sweats, weight loss, frequent vomiting sensations, anorexia, lymph node enlargement, lumps or abdominal distension due to enlarged abdominal organs, abdominal, bone, and back pain, delirium and confusion, abnormal bleeding in gums, nose, and cuts, headaches with visual difficulties, occurrence of fine rashes on dark spots, decreased urination, and difficulty while urinating.

Causes of Blood Cancer

Although the exact cause of blood cancer is still not known, there are several factors that are linked to its development, including aging, family history, weak immune system, and certain infections. Additionally, there are various symptoms and causes of blood cancer, available treatments, early signs of leukemia, and possible effects of blood cancer treatments on fertility. It is also possible to find more information on blood cancer, including its treatment by chemotherapy, availability of treatments for multiple myeloma, and whether the immune system can cause lymphatic cancer.

What is a Bone Marrow Transplant?

A bone marrow transplant is a medical intervention used to replace damaged or diseased bone marrow with healthy stem cells. Bone marrow plays a crucial role in producing important components of the blood, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. When bone marrow is damaged or destroyed, it can result in conditions such as anemia, bleeding disorders, or susceptibility to infections. A bone marrow transplant involves transplanting healthy stem cells into the patient's body, which will then produce new blood cells and restore normal blood cell function. This procedure can be used to treat a variety of blood disorders, such as leukemia, lymphoma, or multiple myeloma, as well as other conditions affecting the bone marrow.

Reasons for Bone Marrow Transplant

Aplastic Anemia occurs when the bone marrow fails to produce new blood cells, while leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma are types of cancer that can affect the blood. Chemotherapy can also damage the bone marrow, leading to decreased blood cell production. Congenital neutropenia is an inherited disorder that can cause recurrent infections. Sickle cell anemia is an inherited blood disorder that causes abnormally shaped red blood cells, and thalassemia is another inherited blood disorder that affects the production of hemoglobin in red blood cells.

Types of Bone Marrow Transplant

Autologous transplants refer to the use of a person's own stem cells, which are harvested before treatment and then transplanted back into their body. On the other hand, allogeneic transplants involve the use of stem cells from a donor, who must be a close genetic match.


Blood cancer hospitals in India provide various therapies for the treatment of blood cancer with the primary aim of complete eradication of cancer. These therapies include chemotherapy, bone marrow transplantation, biological therapy (immunotherapy), and radiation therapy. The Haemato-oncology department is dedicated to improving the outlook for patients with myeloma by developing novel therapeutic approaches based on a sound understanding of the disease's biology. A specialized team of Haemato-oncologists and radiation oncologists offers state-of-the-art treatment for various cancers, including lymphomas, leukemia, and multiple myelomas. The Bone Marrow Transplant unit is equipped with HEPA (High-Efficiency Particulate Air) filters and offers stem cell transplantation for both benign and malignant conditions in children and adults.